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As a certified FROSIO Level III expert, I have repeatedly experienced exciting and new fields of application for specific inspections during my many years of professional experience.  Here I share my experience, because the targeted use of FROSIO inspectors makes a valuable contribution to the longevity and efficiency of steel structures.

Inspection and non-destructive testing

Regular inspections and condition monitoring form the basis for quality assurance and maintenance management. The inspector's tasks can be summarized under "inspect, observe and report". Inspection ensures that work is performed in accordance with project specifications, procedures, and standards. The final report documents the findings and any discrepancies. StS provides condition monitoring and inspection of welding, surfacing and insulation work performed by specialists with professional experience and relevant certification such as FROSIO and NDT. A positive pressure habitat provides excellent working conditions for performing NDT in conjunction with hot work suction as welding operations often require NDT inspection upon completionTo address difficult access, StS offers NDT and FROSIO inspectors trained in industrial rope access.

1. Non-destructive testing methods

In addition to the already presented test methods HT Visual testing, VT Magnetic particle testing, MTEindentation testing, PT Eddy current testing, ET Ultrasonic testing, UT Radiography testing, there are further methods: RT Positive material identification PMI and hardness measurement HT.

2. PMI Positive material identification

Positive Material Identification (PMI) is used to analyze and identify material quality and alloy composition for quality and safety control. A rapid, non-destructive method of positive material identification is performed on a variety of components and assets and provides semi-quantitative chemical analysis. It is used for both material verification and identification. The method is used for quality control and safety compliance and is an essential part of managing the production and integrity of assets in many industries, including oil and gas, energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, nuclear, aerospace, and manufacturing. Positive material identification can prevent a potential product failure during manufacturing. In oil and gas, power generation and pharmaceutical companies, inspecting critical components and welds with PMI before and during operation can prevent failures and their costly consequences.

PMI can:

Ensure products/components are made from the correct alloy Find potentially mixed alloys Determine if the wrong material was used Ensure material is to the correct standard and specification (both customer and industry). Ensure welded components have used the correct filler material Positive material identification is performed using one of the following two techniques: X-ray fluorescence analyzer (XRF): this is the most commonly used method. Due to the portability of the handheld equipment, Intertek can perform PMI on-site at our customers' facilities. The instrument scans the metal material and identifies its key elements. However, it cannot detect carbon and some lighter elements and is not suitable for identifying pure carbon steel materials. Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES): this method can detect almost all types of elements, including carbon and lighter elements as well as carbon steel. Although the instrument is not as portable as XRF analyzers, it can be transported to sites and used at high altitudes with appropriate lifting equipment. Intertek's experienced PMI inspectors can provide on-site results, followed by certification of the results in a written report. We also interpret and advise on the results. In addition, our response times ensure that we meet your production or inspection schedules. If further analysis is required, Intertek can provide the fully quantitative laboratory techniques to confirm the results. When you turn to us for positive material identification, you can count on fast, reliable service with accurate results that provide full quality assurance that your products or assets meet the required quality and safety standards in today's markets and industries.

3. HT Portable hardness test

Portable Hardness Testing (HT) is a non-destructive testing method used to determine the hardness value of a material. This method is used to test ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys, as well as selected non-metallic materials, welds and weld pads, weld heat affected zones (HAZ), castings and forgings, piping, stress relieved materials, machined parts, pressure vessels and structural steel. Damaged materials are inspected as part of a failure analysis for welds and to verify material conformance to: ASME Section IX NACE MR0175 / ISO 15156 requirements ADVANTAGES Rapid results and reporting to customer Field ready Highly portable tools can be used at most locations RESTRICTIONS Brinell hardness testing cannot be performed on thin material, in weld affected weld zones, and on surfaces where indentations are unacceptable, e. g. For example, finished surfaces MicroDur measurements require a surface that is polished to a near mirror finish The Equotip should only be used for parts with a thickness of ½ inch or more When electrical hardness testers are used, the temperature of the test material must not exceed approximately 200 ° F.

Surface treatment methods in the coating industry

by | Sep 7, 2023

Industrial coating performance and life cycle are determined by various forms such as appropriate surface pretreatment methods, coating system selection, environment and cost.

Surface pretreatment gets rid of existing rust, unpleasant down payments, old finishings, and also other known as well as unknown contaminants (except salt, oil, grease, etc, which require further pretreatment). The main reason for surface area pretreatment is that appropriate pretreatment enhances the attachment from the substrate to the guide. The type of surface treatment and also its suitability determine the life span of the coating.

Surface therapy approaches are wide and always selected in connection with the project and also process demands of the corresponding market and in consultation with the system owner. Despite the substrate (carbon steel, stainless-steel, light weight aluminum, copper, brass, bronze, titanium, concrete, etc), treatment in the selection and execution of the respective surface treatment is important for the preferred duration of covering stability and thus for optimal deterioration defense. In the layer market, the surface area treatment for dry blowing up is called sandblasting or compressed air blowing up with solid unpleasant.

Which surface therapy methods are defined by the clients?

Cleansing approach with hand devices
Cleaning up approach utilizing power tools
Dry grinding cleansing technique
Cleaning approach for damp grinding splits
high-pressure water jet procedure
Cleaning technique for hand devices
Cleaning with hand devices

Hand device cleaning is a method of producing a steel substratum utilizing hand devices with little initiative. Cleansing with hand tools removes all loosened milling particles, loosened rust, loose paint and also various other loose impurities. It is not meant for getting rid of stubborn range, rust and paint. The American typical SSPC SP-2, Swedish as well as DIN EN ISO 12944 ST2 clearly defines that range, corrosion and paint are considered glue if they can not be gotten rid of by raising with a matt spatula.

Cleaning up with hand tools is meant when valuable for preparing tiny, hard to reach or tough locations or made complex shapes. Blowing up can not be performed in these locations or it is not practical. There are various devices offered for manually preparing surface areas. Several of one of the most usual ones are hand cord brush, scraper, carve, hammer, etc.

Kind of hand tool made use of:
Usage effect hand tools to get rid of layered corrosion (corrosion scales).
Use influence tools to eliminate any weld slag.
Hand cleaning, hand scratching, or similar non-assistive techniques can effortlessly remove debris, loosened or non-adherent corrosion, as well as loose paint.
Criterion reference: According to ISO 8501-1 and also CACOPHONY EN ISO 12944, the cleaning criterion for hand tools is St 2. According to the criterion, St 2 refers to the cleaning technique with hand devices (Hand Device Cleaning– SSPC-SP2).

Cleaning up approach using power devices

Power tool cleansing is an approach of preparing steel surfaces using power tools. Making use of laser as well as heat induction technologies is not included. A surface cleaned with power devices, when viewed without magnification, should be without noticeable oil as well as oil deposits and devoid of loose range, loose rust, loosened paint and various other loose harmful international objects. The connected milling scale, rust and paint must not be gotten rid of during this process. Scale, corrosion, as well as paint are thought about sticky if they can not be removed by raising with a boring putty knife.

Sort of power tool made use of:

Roll cord brush, needle weapon, power grinder, rotating effect devices, bristles, rota ball, flap disc, etc.

Requirement reference: According to ISO 8501-1 and also CACOPHONY EN ISO 12944, the cleansing criterion for the power tool is St 3 (SSPC-SP3). According to Swedish and also DIN EN ISO 129544 criterion, St 3 refers to the craft cleaning technique, which can be associated with the visual standards.
Standard referral:

ISO 8501-1, SIS 05 5900 and also RACKET EN IOS 12944–.

Sa 1: Brush-off Blast Cleaning SSPC-SP7/ NACE 4.

Sa 2: Business Blast Cleaning Up SSPC-SP6/ NACE 3/ BS 4232 Third High Quality.

Sa 2 1/2: Near White Metal Blast Cleaning SSPC-SP10/ NACE 2/ BS 4232 Second Quality.

Sa 3: White Metal Blast Cleaning SSPC-SP5/ NACE 1/ BS 4232 First High Quality.

Damp grinding cleaning.

The devices for the cleaning process for wet blowing up systems is identical to the dry blowing up system, but also for the damp blasting device the unpleasant particles are had in the water flow. Because of the bothersome dirt (air contamination) throughout completely dry grinding blasting, lots of customers choose wet blowing up to manage environmental issues.

The primary downside of cleansing in relation to damp blowing up systems is because of the development of flash corrosion. The damp surface can oxidize swiftly, leaving a poor quality surface for finish approval. To reduce or stop oxidation, approved inhibitors might be made use of with client authorization. The preventions must be compatible with the finishing system. If compatibility is not possible, obligation errors are typically unpreventable.


The result of water jet methods resembles damp jet cleansing: flash rust on the ready surface area. The major benefit of water jetting is to get rid of all impurities that contain chemical items (i.e., salts). It is the most effective method to remove salt from the surface area.


The existing surface area profile is brought back (the existing profile in the maintenance job is not harmed).
It will certainly remove all pollution.
Really reliable process.

No surface area account is created.
Equipment costs are really high.
A high degree of driver knowledge is definitely required.
Extremely harmful due to high pressure.

Type of water jet.
Reduced Stress Water Cleaning (LPWC)– less than 5000 psi.
High Pressure Water Cleansing (HPWC)– 5000– 10000 psi.
High Pressure Water Jet (HPWJ)– 10000– 30000 psi.
Ultra High Pressure Water Jet (UHPWJ)– greater than 30,000 psi.
Standard recommendation: SSPC VIS 5– SSPC WJ 1, SSPC WJ 2, SSPC WJ 3, SSPC WJ 4.

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