As a certified FROSIO Level III expert, I have repeatedly experienced exciting and new fields of application for specific inspections during my many years of professional experience. Here I share my experience, because the targeted use of FROSIO inspectors makes a valuable contribution to the longevity and efficiency of steel structures.
Inspection and non-destructive testing
Regular inspections and condition monitoring form the basis for quality assurance and maintenance management. The inspector's tasks can be summarized under "inspect, observe and report". Inspection ensures that work is performed in accordance with project specifications, procedures, and standards. The final report documents the findings and any discrepancies. StS provides condition monitoring and inspection of welding, surfacing and insulation work performed by specialists with professional experience and relevant certification such as FROSIO and NDT. A positive pressure habitat provides excellent working conditions for performing NDT in conjunction with hot work suction as welding operations often require NDT inspection upon completionTo address difficult access, StS offers NDT and FROSIO inspectors trained in industrial rope access.
1. Non-destructive testing methods
In addition to the already presented test methods HT Visual testing, VT Magnetic particle testing, MTEindentation testing, PT Eddy current testing, ET Ultrasonic testing, UT Radiography testing, there are further methods: RT Positive material identification PMI and hardness measurement HT.
2. PMI Positive material identification
Positive Material Identification (PMI) is used to analyze and identify material quality and alloy composition for quality and safety control. A rapid, non-destructive method of positive material identification is performed on a variety of components and assets and provides semi-quantitative chemical analysis. It is used for both material verification and identification. The method is used for quality control and safety compliance and is an essential part of managing the production and integrity of assets in many industries, including oil and gas, energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, nuclear, aerospace, and manufacturing. Positive material identification can prevent a potential product failure during manufacturing. In oil and gas, power generation and pharmaceutical companies, inspecting critical components and welds with PMI before and during operation can prevent failures and their costly consequences.
Ensure products/components are made from the correct alloy Find potentially mixed alloys Determine if the wrong material was used Ensure material is to the correct standard and specification (both customer and industry). Ensure welded components have used the correct filler material Positive material identification is performed using one of the following two techniques: X-ray fluorescence analyzer (XRF): this is the most commonly used method. Due to the portability of the handheld equipment, Intertek can perform PMI on-site at our customers' facilities. The instrument scans the metal material and identifies its key elements. However, it cannot detect carbon and some lighter elements and is not suitable for identifying pure carbon steel materials. Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES): this method can detect almost all types of elements, including carbon and lighter elements as well as carbon steel. Although the instrument is not as portable as XRF analyzers, it can be transported to sites and used at high altitudes with appropriate lifting equipment. Intertek's experienced PMI inspectors can provide on-site results, followed by certification of the results in a written report. We also interpret and advise on the results. In addition, our response times ensure that we meet your production or inspection schedules. If further analysis is required, Intertek can provide the fully quantitative laboratory techniques to confirm the results. When you turn to us for positive material identification, you can count on fast, reliable service with accurate results that provide full quality assurance that your products or assets meet the required quality and safety standards in today's markets and industries.
3. HT Portable hardness test
Portable Hardness Testing (HT) is a non-destructive testing method used to determine the hardness value of a material. This method is used to test ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys, as well as selected non-metallic materials, welds and weld pads, weld heat affected zones (HAZ), castings and forgings, piping, stress relieved materials, machined parts, pressure vessels and structural steel. Damaged materials are inspected as part of a failure analysis for welds and to verify material conformance to: ASME Section IX NACE MR0175 / ISO 15156 requirements ADVANTAGES Rapid results and reporting to customer Field ready Highly portable tools can be used at most locations RESTRICTIONS Brinell hardness testing cannot be performed on thin material, in weld affected weld zones, and on surfaces where indentations are unacceptable, e. g. For example, finished surfaces MicroDur measurements require a surface that is polished to a near mirror finish The Equotip should only be used for parts with a thickness of ½ inch or more When electrical hardness testers are used, the temperature of the test material must not exceed approximately 200 ° F.
Maximizing Lifespan: The Imperative of Surface Treatment in the Coating Industry
Industrial coating performance and life cycle are determined by various forms such as appropriate surface pretreatment methods, coating system selection, environment and cost.
The same uses right here: Avoidance is better than remedy!
Surface area treatment– a neglected NDT discipline? The significance of high-quality surface therapy is ending up being increasingly crucial. The subsequent costs of creating an expert and also effective anti-corrosion covering are mostly triggered by very pricey repair work that can have been stayed clear of with inspection and repair prior to installment.
As an example, if you require to fix the paint on an overseas wind generator, this will swiftly become a pricey event merely due to the “tough” area and also construction as well as the weather. Why surface area treatment? Surface therapy is executed nearly specifically to expand the life of structure or structural components. Yet it can additionally have a decorative or useful definition, e.g. B. smooth ship paint, which decreases rubbing as well as pollution. The predominant part of surface treatment today is either painting or hot-dip galvanizing.
Choose the lifespan
Prior to you start with a surface therapy, it is important that you consider the length of time the desired life expectancy of the framework is as well as what climatic atmosphere the object will certainly remain in. For this purpose there is a great assistance in the typical DS, namely hubbub EN ISO 12944, corrosion defense of steel structures. The standard specifies atmospheric rust classifications in addition to the toughness of numerous paint systems. The climatic deterioration classifications describe the corrosivity of different regular environments and also array from C1-very low (warmed room) to C5-M very high (offshore).
Interpretation of durability
Longevity is a technical term specified as the time period throughout which a system does not call for upkeep. Sturdiness is either reduced (2-5 years), tool (5-15 years) or high (> 15 years).
Suitability and framework
Treatment must be taken to make sure that the steel appropriates for surface area treatment. When hot-dip galvanizing, the silicon material of the steel is important for the layer thickness along with the quality and also buildings of the zinc. It is for that reason essential to define that the steel can be hot-dip galvanized. Really rusty steels are challenging to sandblast sufficiently. Care needs to be required to make sure that the steel is suitable for surface security.
The physical residential or commercial properties of the object as well as the environment is also an important concern. Both for the health of the applicator as well as for the rust defense system itself. This typically has to be applied in a dry setting. In our latitudes it is virtually difficult to coat correctly in wintertime without the job being accomplished in a safeguarded space that is heated and also aerated. In order to get over the difficulties discussed above, it is recommended to have a FROSIO inspector screen the object being refined throughout the whole process. Once the job procedure is finished, no issues can have emerged from the pretreatment. Problems normally only appear if surface area ending up fails before completion. Before you begin blasting work, make certain that the steel fulfills the deterioration protection requirements. This suggests that all sharp edges are rounded and also the weld seams are devoid of weld spatter as well as pores. Otherwise, really unequal paint layer densities will result, with undercoating in these locations. Grease and oil residues must also be eliminated, e.g. B. can be eliminated with thinner, or else they will trigger problems such as bad attachment during the later paint build-up as well as the feasible adhesion test.
Continuous monitoring in the process
After surface pre-treatment by sandblasting, sanitation as well as roughness are checked. Pureness is visually evaluated according to ISO 8501-1, that includes referral images of sandblasted steel spaces. The roughness can be checked aesthetically making use of an ISO comparator according to ISO 8503-2. This is a referral steel plate with blown up surface areas that is contrasted to the current object. There are also different other techniques of determining roughness. When consulting a proper roughness measuring tool, it should just be guaranteed that the equivalent tool has actually been properly calibrated. An instance of inadequate surface area pretreatment can be seen, as an example, if the paint peels in large flakes after finish. Repaint usually sticks improperly to unclean and also smooth steel surface areas. The layer density of each layer of paint is gotten in touch with a layer thickness meter. The number of measurements ought to go to least 1 dimension per square meter. In addition, a general aesthetic inspection of the ended up surface area of the elements is vital. The paint system have to not have any pores, bubbles, fractures or various other flaws that can impact its life span. However, you can usually approve declines and shade distinctions as these have a purely aesthetic meaning.
To regulate the surface therapy from beginning to end, paint assessors can be educated according to the Norwegian FROSIO training. The training emerges from the Norwegian oil industry’s demand for qualified inspectors and also abide by the Norwegian typical NS476. There is additionally the American NACE finishing inspector, which is not as usual in Europe.
The final thought continues to be: Assessment is less costly than repair
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